Writing in the Classroom
- Writing as Instructional Practice: Writing is thinking made visible. Because writing is visible, it allows people to work together in a complex intellectual space. Writing can provide a shared space for teachers and students.
- Writer’s Workshop: Writer’s Workshop is an approach to writing in which students take on the role of working authors and spend most of their time engaged in the act of writing. They write as often as possible for real purposes about things that matter to them.
- Using Mentor Texts to Motivate and Support Student Writing: Mentor texts are any text that can be used as an example of good writing for writers. Writers use a mentor text to inform their own writing.
Speech recognition, also referred to as speech-to-text and voice recognition, is a technology that recognizes speech and can transfer spoken words into digitized text.
- Adaptations vs. The Three Rs
- Speech Recognition in the Classroom: What do Teachers Need to Know?
- Tips for Teaching Speech to Text as Writing
- Speech Recognition as AT for Writing: A Guide for k-12 Education
Word prediction software can help a student during word processing by “predicting” a word the student intends to type and provides spoken feedback. When a student inputs the first letter of the word, the software presents a list of possible words beginning with that letter.
- Word Prediction in the Classroom: What do Teachers Need to Know?
- The Importance of Word Prediction for Students with Dyslexia
Inclusive Education: Emergent Writing
Emergent writing includes the marks, scribbles, lines, and randomly selected letters of beginning writers. Students of any age can be emergent writers. During the emergent writing stage, students are experimenting with writing. As they experiment, students are figuring out how to use a pencil, how to construct understandings, how to represent their ideas and that writing is communication.
- Emergent Writing Assessment Tool: First Author Writing Measures: First Author Writing Measures are a comprehensive group of measurement tools for beginning student writers. The measures (the Developmental Writing Scale, text type diversity, topic diversity, total intelligible words, and unique words) monitor writing growth in the earliest stages of writing over time. First Author Writing Measures are appropriate for both young, typically developing children and students with mild to significant disabilities of all ages.
- Lots of Alternatives: “Pencils” for Everyone: An alternative pencil is defined as anything that provides a student with access to all 26 letters of the alphabet. Writing with alternate pencils allows students with significant disabilities to develop beginning writing skills by supporting them to go through the same developmental writing phases typically developing students do.
- Predictable Chart Writing: Predictable chart writing is a fun and easy, shared writing activity that supports emergent and conventional writers and readers. It is a way of providing some structure, while allowing students to generate their own ideas. Predictable Chart Writing is an excellent component of creating a modified curriculum for emergent writers.
- Meaningful Writing Activities for Emergent Writers: Writing development emerges over time. For students in the emergent stage of writing, we need to provide many opportunities to engage in writing. The form of conventional writing becomes more conventional over time when we provide opportunities for them to engage in activities and provide feedback and instruction that emphasizes the meaningful functions of their writing. Below are some ideas related to supporting emergent writers.